Most of the over 100 research studies has been made about two areas:
1. Mental Training/Integrated Mental Training
2. Hypnosis and Posthypnotic suggestions
Here are short summaries from 20 studies from Mental Training and 30 studies from Hypnosis
I. Mental Training / Integrated Mental Training
1. Investigations of the Inner Mental room (IMR) showed the biggest EEG changes in the theta band, more than in the alfa band, in which a lower part increase and higher part decrease can be seen.
2. IMR was also related to a ”hemispheric shift” with a levelling out of the basic activity and a similar activation of left and right (”holistic brain”)
3. IMR also seemed to be related to”Section divine”, the ratio 1.618 (the old classical ratio for beauty and harmony). This ratio was found both in the measurement of various cortical points of IMR-activation and also in the ratio between EEG frequences (beta 1/beta 2, alpha/beta 1, theta/alpha, delta/theta). Thus, the holistic brain concept could be complemented with the”harmonous brain”.
4. PE-students ”shooting” 30 mental basket penalty shots a day (in IMR) made a significant improvement (compared with a controlgroup) and improved as much as those making 30 physical training shots a day.
5. An experiment group of 100 bowlers showed personal but not performance improvements compared with the hundred in the controlgroup after 3 months of IMT-training, but after that the difference also in performance became continous bigger during the investigation period of 3 years.(One bowler became the world number one for 3 years)
6. Objective measures and subjective ratings from alpine skiraces showed that the worst results were related to active thoughts of various technique details while the best results came after a. hypnotic race programming, b. handing over the race to the body and c. supporting the body with a ”positive emotional rhythm production”.
7. After reaching the finish line in the national downhill championships the skiers were asked to ski the race again, now mentally. The best skiers had more similar time in the physical and mental skiing.
8. Physical training (swimming a.o.) became more effective by replacing the traditional negative and delayed feedback with a positive and immediate feedback produced by operant techniques, where the ”right performance” was reinforced through signal released posthypnotic positive emotions.
9a. Posthypnotic induced variations of mental states and attitudes produced a performance variation, measured through isometric strength. The ”normal” maximum strength in the subject could be increased with 18% when the subjects had the best attitude to themself (self-image) and an optimal attitude to the task (goal-image)
9b. The worst performance came when the subject were”relaxed”. This finding led to the construction of the new english word”relaxense” corresponding to the Swedish word ”avspänd”. This state, which is crucial for IPS, is characterized by”an optimal tension in the right muscles and relaxation of the antagonistic muscles”.
”INNER BODY CHANGES”
10. Significant decrease of cortizol and increase of betaendorphin levels are common effects after a number of weeks of regular IMT-training
11. Significant immunological positive changes, measured with T4/T8 cells, have been shown in 3 different IMT-investigations. A further analysis showed that it was the ”Life Quality Training” (”Emotional Training”) that gave the most positive changes.
12. 300 cancer patients were matched into a control and experimental group. The difference between the control and the mental training group was largest in the terminal ill group 70 tinnitus patients from the Gbg university had regular mental training for 3 months. Few of these got rid of the sound but almost all reduced or got rid of the disturbance.
13. The same effect has been showed in the work with Mental Training for chronic pain patients at Helsingborgs hospital. The most common effects have to do with moving and reframing the pain and learning to ignore and refocus.
14. Relaxing music and positive posthypnotic suggestions improved the conditions during and after 70 orthopedic surgeries compared with a control group with white sound (15)
15. The aging process (measured with DHEAS) could be reversed through 6 months of mental training The experimental group lowered their biological age with seven years.
16. The National Team in swimming was divided in a controlgroup and 3 experimental group (mental training, melatonin, placebo) in a jetlagstudy before the Sydney Olympics. The Mental Training group showed the best results in the measured variables (Sleep quality and Performance ratings)
17. In a number of studies the effects of IMT on areas like Sleep, Weight, Smoking etc. have been shown. The best results are shown if the training starts with the basic mental training (learning self-hypnosis) before starting with the specific application
18. The applications of IMT into the Swedish Schoolsystem started 1975 and after six years of studies (doctoral dissertion by Sven Setterlind etc.), Sweden became the first country to include Mental Training into the school scheme. Since 2007 is a ”Lifeskills training” applied and investigated in a number of schools from primary to high school level, containing Basic Mental Training, Mental Training, Lifestyle training, Communication and Teamwork, Values and Ethic Training , Emotional and Mental Toughness training, Parentship and Leadership Training.
19. At the University level continuous evaluations are made from those professional related academies (The Police Academy, Music Academy etc, where Mental Training is an integrated part of the studies), to those Universities having specific mental training courses like ”Humor and Health”, ”Learning to learn”, ”Mental Training and Project Leadership” over to the private Scandinavian International University, which specialize in using Mental Training, NLP and Coaching for education to a number of new professions, like Licensed Mental Trainers, Stress Coaches, Health Coaches etc.
II. 30 studies of Post-Hypnotic suggestions (PHS)
I made and supervised over 50 studies at Uppsala and Örebro University in the area of PHS. They have so far only been published in Swedish. This Paper/workshop will give a summary of 30 of them. PHS is any stimuli which has been given “signal value” during hypnosis, the PHS effect being released after hypnosis. The most interesting and usable PHS is the “signal released”, where every stimuli can be made to a signal releasing the effect, decided during hypnosis.
1. The release of the posthypnotic effect was often combined with a short spontaneous trance
2. When a stimuli was made to a signal it seemed to block hearing and vision.
3. Voluntary effort or strong motivation could not remove the blockings
4. A PHS about colorblindness created a “real” effect, tested through objective tests.
5. PHS of amnesia for the figure 6 created a blocking of 6 in very language, counting & writing.
6. PHS effects, Signal released, but not duration decided, vanished spontaneously after awhile
7. Amnesia for the German language disappeared through a night dream 2 weeks later
8. PHS to stay in hypnosis for one week was studied intensively to identify the differences
9. All PHS phenomena was possible to establish for the Ss by advanced self-hypnotic techniques
10. It was possible to give oneself PHS about amnesia for my own suggestions
11. It was possible to effectuate to induce and release suggestion of things I do´nt want
12. I can prevent influence from others when I´m in my “mental room” (self-hypnosis)
13. PHS /triggers was good tools to enhance and deepen self-hypnosis?
14. Hypnosis and Self-hypnosis increased the effectiveness of triggers and anchors
15. PHS and trigger released concentration became extremely valuable in all kind of Sports
16. PHS became a common method in everything from Performing Arts to Public speaking
17. Sleep through Self-hypnosis and/or PHS created some interesting night-EEG differences
18. It was possible to establish contact in the morning and program a “good” day before waking
19. Experiments to explain “my inner clock” (“programming” of a specific waking time, etc.)
20. The effects of PHS during narcosis in 72 orthopedic operations
21. PHS as operant techniques to reinforce behavior
22. Experiments to identify the “ideal reinforcement feeling” for behavior change
23. PHS in creation and removal of experimental phobias
24. The conditioning of various emotions to sounds with various frequencies (ECS)
25. The use of the Emotional Control system (ECS) to reinforce excellent swimming
26. The Use of ECS to establish and control flow in Sport and Performing Arts
27. The Use of ECS to increase learning quality and test results in School
28. The Use of Self-hypnosis, ECS and PHS to learn a Sport (golf) without physical practice
29. Use of the Sleep Control System to remove jetlag and increase performance in the Olympics
30. The Use of ESC and mental training to increase performance in ten Olympics
Forskningsrapporter från Psykologiska Institutionen,
Uppsala Universitet, 1967-1974
Uneståhl L-E, Holmgren S,: Hypnotisk kontroll av responsivitet under sömn. 1967
Uneståhl L-E,: Hypnos och hypnotiserbarhet, 1968
Uneståhl L-E,: Posthypnotisk inducerad trötthet, 1968
Uneståhl L-E,: Undersökning av olika posthypnotiska suggestioner på bilkörning i simulator, 1968
Uneståhl L-E,: Posthypnotiska trancens natur, 1969
Uneståhl L-E,: Posthypnotisk inducerad färgblindhet, 1969
Uneståhl L-E,: Signalutlösta posthypnotiska suggestioner, 1970
Uneståhl L-E,: Generalisering och diskriminering vid posthypnotiska suggestioner, 1971
Uneståhl L-E,: Investigations concerning spontaneous trance and posthypnotic suggestions, 1971
Uneståhl L-E, Ekström P, Lindwall M,: Effekten av posthypnotisk inducerad anesti och hyperestesi, 1971
Uneståhl L-E, Johansson A-M, Nygårds A-M,: Relationen mellan posthypnotisk varierad aktiveringsnivå och prestationsförmåga, 1971
Uneståhl L-E, Berglund B, Gaunitz S,: En posthypnotisk utlöst emotion som förstärkare, 1971
Uneståhl L-E, Gaunitz S,: Typiskt beteende under hypnos telaterat till subjektiva förväntningar, 1971
Uneståhl L-E, Piltz K, Söderlund I,: Det hypnotiska och posthypnotiska insomnandets inverkan på sömnen, 1971
Uneståhl L-E,: En studie av verkningslängden hos vissa posthypnotiska suggestioner, 1972
Uneståhl L-E,: The interaction of Behavior Therapy and Hypnosis, 1972
Uneståhl L-E, Lindgren U, Lindström M,: En undersökning av föreställningsförmåga under olika grader av avslappning och hypnos, 1972
Uneståhl L-E, Ahlstedt B, Lodhammar L, Skoog C,: Effekten av hypnotisk inducerad anesti på subjektiva skattningar, blodtryck och katekollaminutsöndring, 1972
Uneståhl L-E, Granholm G, Hilding K,: Katekollaminutsöndring och posthypnotisk modifiering av stresstillstånd, 1972
Uneståhl L-E, Irfann S,: En posthypnotisk utlöst emotion som förstärkare, 1972
Uneståhl L-E, Barkestam L, Isaksson C, Melander A,: En studie av förväntanseffekter på mottaglighet för hypnos, 1972
Uneståhl L-E, Berglund B, Öhrstedt B,: Emotioner inducerade under hypnos och några fysiologiska och psykologiska indikatorer på dessa, 1972
Uneståhl L-E,: Hypnosis in dynamic and behavior therapy, 1973
Uneståhl L-E,: The use of hypnosis in Sport and Art, 1973
Uneståhl L-E,: Hypnosis and spontaneous trance, 1973
Uneståhl L-E, Beving A, Ericson B, Wassberg G,: Effekter av hypnos som sömnadministrerad sömterapi vid sömnbesvär, 1973
Uneståhl L-E, Hultin K, Sundgren B,: Effekten av föreställningar under hypnos och avslappning på idrottsprestationer, 1973
Uneståhl L-E, Boström E, Orre J,: Effekten av hypnos och suggestion på nystagmus och pupillstorlek, 1974
Uneståhl L-E, Waara K, Wastensson S,: Iakttagelser kring posthypnotiskt blockerande suggestion samt relationen till perceptuell defense, hypnotisk amnesi och posthypnotiskt trancetillstånd, 1974
Uneståhl L-E, Andersson M, Fromell A-C, Sandström B,: Trancendental meditation, 1974
Uneståhl L-E, Appelgren S,: En studie i självhypnos I, 1974
Uneståhl L-E, Larsson G,: En studie i självhypnos II, 1974
Forskningsrapporter från Avdelningen för idrottsforskning,
GIH, Högskolan i Örebro 1975-1982
Uneståhl L-E, Hultin K, Sundgren B,: Effekten av föreställningar under hypnos och avslappning på idrottsprestationer. Rapport I, 1975
Uneståhl L-E, Gustavsson M,: Psykologiska faktorer vid elitskytte, Rapport II, 1975
Uneståhl L-E, Olsson B, Sahlin P, Skoghäll A-K,: Elitidrott - en probleminventering. I. Friidrott. Rappot III, 1975
Uneståhl L-E, Andersson S, Slottsjö Y,: Biorytm och idrott. Rapport VII, 1976
Uneståhl L-E, Peterson Y,: Motorisk inlärning och posthypnotisk förstärkning. Rapport VIII, 1976
Uneståhl L-E,: Effekten av varierande fysisk och mental spänning vid skytte. Rapport IX, 1977
Uneståhl L-E, Buuts U,: Sommarolympiaden 1976. Rapport X, 1977
Uneståhl L-E, Andersson H, Joelsson B,: Omedelbar feedback och posthypnotisk förstärkning. En metodstudie i simning. Rapport XI, 1978
Uneståhl L-E,: Mental Träning. Rapport XII, 1978
Uneståhl L-E, Billengren T, Cardell J, Holmberg I, Jonsson J,: ÖIK - En problemanalys. Rapport XVIII, 1979
Uneståhl L-E, Aspelin K, Hermansson M,: Elitidrott - en probleminventering i utförsåkning. Rapport XIX, 1979
Uneståhl L-E,: Utveckling och utvärdering av metoder för mental träning - En lägesrapport. Rapport XX, 1980
Uneståhl L-E, Augustsson B, Nordenberg A, Svensson C,: Psykologiska dimensioner som påverkar idrottsprestationer. - Konstruktion och utvärdering av ett individtest. Rapport XXI, 1980
Uneståhl L-E, Briefe S,: Utvärdering av mental träning i bowling. Rapport XXIII, 1981
Uneståhl L-E,: Motorisk inlärning genom mental träning. Rapport XXIV, 1981
Uneståhl L-E, Thor M,: Monotont långtidsarbete. I. Lidingöloppet. Rapport XXV, 1981
Uneståhl L-E, Apelqvist L, Gustafsson A,: Monotont långtidsarbete. II. Västgötaloppet. Rapport XXVI, 1981
Uneståhl L-E, Henriksson B, Högström J,: Psykologiska faktorers inverkan på muskelstyrka. Rapport XXVII. 1981
Uneståhl L-E, Ingvarsson P-A,: Fotboll - En analys av fotbollsallsvenskan 1979. Rapport XXVIII, 1981
Uneståhl L-E, Strandh P,: Simning och mental träning. Rapport XXIX, 1981
Uneståhl L-E, Bexell, S, Lanker M,: Mental träning och återhämtningsförmåga. Rapport XXX, 1981
Uneståhl L-E, Bodin M, Poulsen E,: Konståkning - modellinlärning. Rapport XXXI, 1981
Some Research articles from the Swedish - Russian co-joint research project
Unestahl LE, Bundzen P.: Integrated Mental Training - neuro-biochemical mechanisms and psycho-physical consequences. J Hypnos 1996;23(3):148-156
Bundzen P, Leisner P, Malinin A, Unestahl LE.: Mental relaxation: Neuro-dynamic markers and psychopysiologocal mechanisms. In: Rodano R, Hill D, eds. Current Research in Sport Sciences: An International Perspective. New York and London Plenum Press, 1996-.91-101.
Unestahl L-E, Bundzen P (1996) Integrated mental training – neuro–biochemical mechanisms
and psycho-physical consequencies. Hypnos, 1996, XXIII (3): 148–58.
Bundzen P, Gavrilova E, Isakov V, Unestahl LE.: Stresslimiting and immunomodulating effect of mental training. J Pathopysiol 1998:5,(1):148.
Unestahl L-E, Bundzen P, Gavrilova E, Isakov V The effects of integrated mental training
on stress and psychosomatic health. Hypnos, 2004, XXXI (2): 83–8.